Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is an organization for regulatory the Nuclear item, (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), a 48 member grouping that was formed in the aftermath of India’s 1974 nuclear test with the aim of ensuring non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology.
The 48 members of the NSG include the five nuclear weapon states, US, UK, France, China and Russia. The other 43 are signatories to the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
The NSG Guidelines also contain the “Non-Proliferation Principle,” adopted in 1994, whereby a supplier, notwithstanding other provisions in the NSG Guidelines, authorizes a transfer only when satisfied that the transfer would not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
NSG; how it operates?
When considering a new nation to be admitted into the group, the NSG has certain prerequisites countries have to meet. The country should have the ability to supply items, including items in transit. The country should adhere to and act in accordance with the guidelines of the group. The nation needs to also implement a legally based domestic export control system which gives authorisation to the commitment to act in accordance with the guidelines. Adherence to one or more of the NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty), the Treaties of Pelindaba, Rarotonga, Tlatelolco, Bangkok, Semipalatinsk or an equivalent international nuclear non-proliferation agreement, and full compliance with the obligations of such agreement(s).
US President Barack Obama on June 7, 2016 has announced that his country is backing India’s bid to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). A day after India received support from the United States' for Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) membership, Pakistan cautioned the cartel of nuclear technology holders that country specific exemptions would negatively impact strategic stability in South Asia. India's membership of the NSG is "not merited until the country meets the group's standards. The group's membership has signed the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty but India has refused to do so, which means "it has not accepted legally binding commitments to pursue disarmament negotiations, halt the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and not test nuclear weapons". President Barack Obama could take advantage of the US-India ties and push for India’s adherence to nuclear proliferation standards. However, the US has for years “sought to bend the rules for India’s nuclear programme” to maintain a cooperative relationship to counter growing Chinese influence in the region, and Obama has been lobbying for India to gain NSG membership.
Since 2008, despite being a non-member and a Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) state, India has finalised more than a dozen nuclear cooperation agreements with NSG’s members. As part of a 2008 deal signed with the US during the Bush Jr era, India promised it would be “ready to assume the same responsibilities and practices” as other member states, but has fallen short by continuing to produce fissile material and expand its nuclear arsenal, the NYT said.
Pakistan's Diplomatic Efforts for NSG membership
Pakistan applied for nuclear supplier group membershipon May 20, 2016 in order to counter possible Indian inclusion into Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG).
Pakistan has managed to gather support from China. Other countries opposing Indian membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) include New Zealand, Ireland, Turkey, South Africa and Austria.
Pakistan argues that in the wake of India gaining easy access to fissile material and technology for its civilian nuclear programme, it would have that much more material for its military nuclear programme and India gaining NSG membership will eventually lead to a nuclear arms race.
Pakistan wishes to have friendly, cooperative and good relations with its neighboring states and believes in peaceful co-existence.
However, India’s first nuclear test in 1974 injected nuclear dimension in strategic relations in South Asia. Pakistan was compelled to develop nuclear capability purely for self-defense.
Pakistan has formally asked the US administration and the Congress to support its application for joining the NSG after it submitted an official application in Vienna, expressing its desires to join the group on solid grounds of technical experience, capability and well-established commitment to nuclear safety.
Pakistan has been struggling to maintain equilibrium and act as a balancer in the tilt of changing nuclear cartels which are governed without principles. Pakistan conducted its nuclear test in 1998 keeping in mind the hostile behavior of its neighbor.
Pakistan has made a convincing case for its right to become a member of the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group – which was established to ensure that civilian trade in nuclear materials was not diverted for military purposes.
Essentially, Pakistan needs a civilian nuclear deal similar to the Indo-US accord, which allows India access to nuclear technology despite not being a signatory to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.
Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs, Sartaj Aziz, has contacted the foreign ministers of Russia, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea, as part of Pakistan’s diplomatic efforts for mobilising support for membership in the NSG. Calls were made as part of Pakistan’s continuing diplomatic efforts.
In order to mobilise support for Pakistan’s NSG membership, a briefing session held in Islamabad on June 8, 2016 with NSG countries diplomatic missions invited.
Pakistan has urged Nuclear Suppliers Group countries to adopt objective and non-discriminatory criteria for awarding membership to the non-NPT states.
Pakistan has the expertise, manpower, infrastructure and the ability to supply NSG controlled items, goods and services for a full range of nuclear applications for peaceful uses.
As part of the ongoing diplomatic efforts, the envoys from NSG countries were urged to adopt objective and non-discriminatory criteria for the membership of Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) states.
Pakistan considers that the nature of threat that exists today, needs to be addressed collectively and therefore, sees itself as a likeminded partner in the global non-proliferation efforts being member of the nuke supplier band.
As a responsible state, Pakistan is participating in and cooperating with the international community in efforts to prevent and control proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Pakistan nuclear has three major objectives i.e. To achieve and maintain credible minimum deterrence and survival in highly nuclearized environment such as India, Russia and China, and meeting its growing nuclear energy needs.
Pakistan has operated secure and safeguarded nuclear power plants for over 42 years. Safe and sustainable civil nuclear energy is essential for Pakistan’s future energy security and its economic development.